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Perfume anno 2012. Part 1 Chemicals and health aspects
Many suffer from perfume smell. A Danish study featured in Berlingske Tidende showed that 4 out of 10 Danes suffer from perfume smell. It is particularly a pest and a nuisance for many people with asthma with hyperresponsiveness and in-risk persons the chemical environment intolerance.
Also, many without known hypersensitivity otherwise the bad of perfume. Caress and Steinemann (2004, 2005) found that 17.8% and 20.5% (respectively the first and second examination) reported headaches, breathing problems and other ailments of “airfresheners” and deodorants, and 10.9% reported complaints of the smell of detergents and fabric softeners. Among asthmatics, this occurred in respectively 29.7% and 37.2% with breathing difficulties, headaches and other ailments. If you had asked a sample of people with chemical environmental intolerance / scent intolerance / MCS numbers would probably have been near 100 percent.
This has been the subject of two detailed dissertations, respectively, in Denmark (Elberling, 2005) and Sweden (Sten-Eaters Hasseus, 2005).
Aftenposten had at the beginning of May 2012 an article about this, but called it allergy. Fragrances are a major cause of contact allergy with eczema, but in asthma, it’s not about allergic reactions to perfume. Worsen of asthma not due to allergies, but the hyperreactivity of the airways, while the chemical environment intolerance is all about sensory hypersensitivity of the airways and / or the eyes mucosal øyeslimhinnen (conjunctiva). When the perfume evokes allergy, there is talk of allergic contact eczema in those who use perfume. All perfumes contain allergenic substances. Those who have contact allergic dermatitis to the perfume is also developing light sensitivity in other organs by the smell of perfume.
Perfume and other fragrance substances used as cosmetics and in the air-fresheners and cleaners, etc. belong to the bad guys right on par with tobacco smoke for many people with asthma and all the chemical environment of intolerance.
The chemicals in perfumes
Perfumes are diverse complex chemical and petrochemical products with volatile solvents plays an important role. Almost all perfumes gases ethanol and similar volatile hydrocarbons (solvents) along with a host of other ingredients. Some have a twenty chemical ingredients, others may have several hundred. Much of this added to soaps, lotions, detergents, etc. (Bickers et al., 2003 Ford et al., 2000).
From 1997, a private site, the Fragranced Products Information Network FPIN conveyed information about “the dangers of our highly scented world.”
Through chemical analysis of perfumes, we know that different perfumes evaporate altogether over 2600 different VOCs (Ford et al., 2000). Many of the ingredients is amended in contact with such oxidizing substances in the air. Terpenes such as limonene and pinene reacts with ozone ozone and other oxidants in indoor air to form potentially harmful pollutants such as ultrafine particles, formaldehyde glykoletere and radicals such as hydroxyl (Destaillats et al, 2006 Singer et al 2006 Wainman 2000). In an indoor environment where walk many people who use different perfumes, so the air can contaminate thousands of products. Most common are ethanol, limonene, linalool,?-fenetyl alcohol?-myrcen, benzylacetat, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde,?-terpinolen,?-citronellol, and ?-pinene.
It is mostly of carbon-containing chemical compounds that occur in ephemeral form (gas) at room temperature. Perfume and perfumed products can make the majority of common human exposure to VOCs in the day. What it means for children who are the most vulnerable among us, we do not know. See Children and perfume (which comes later).
Evaporation occurs in concentrations too low to appear toxic, but the trigger disease in many over-sensitive. It is a common cause of exacerbations of asthma and chemical environmental intolerance / scent perfume odor intolerance which gives severe headache, dizziness, loss of power and causes shock-like conditions with fainting in some people. Although the concentration of these may be low, there is often a matter of almost continuous exposure where the accumulated dust bound chemistry can be important (Rudel et al 2003.
In the United States is full contents lists a large number of perfumes and other “fragrances” for women fragrance for women , men and children in the Government House hold products database. (Use search term “fragrance” in Household products The list of perfumes does not indicate anything about ingredients’ potential health problems. substances specified in the list of names and abbreviations can be confusing for most people. Whoever wants to know more, you can copy the name into the search field Toxnet .
There can one find out how the drug may work for most people, but not in people with allergy, hyperreactivity or chemical environmental intolerance. They want to ban perfume in public spaces.
Increasing knowledge of perfumes chemical diversity can contribute to skepticism about the use of them for others. Many perfumes contain chemicals that can enter the body through the skin and especially the respiratory tract. There are overviews of many perfumes information can seem daunting. Some may be able to console itself with the concentration of each of the many harmful substances are too low to cause toxic effects. However, it may be a poor consolation when one takes into consideration that many people are exposed to (exposure to) the substance is almost continuous.
Steinemann (2008) refers findings by chemical analysis of 6 perfumes and perfumed products. It was discovered under the 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 10 of them considered to be toxic or harmful. Among these, acetaldehyde, chloromethan, and 1,4-dioxan. Such potentially harmful content declared no perfume or scented products.
There is also evidence that certain phthalates and synthetic fragrances (musk) has a negative effect in this context. The frequent use and increasing exposure may be some risk of endocrine disruption as well as the environment can be damaged by perfumes musk substances perfumes musk substances. Greenpeace warns: In 2003 and 2004 saw Greenpeace for analyzing a random sample of a total of 36 perfumes and perfumed products (eau de cologne) with respect to the content of chemical substances that can damage the ability to have children (reproduction and fertility). The reason is that a number of studies show an increasing tendency to poor sperm quality in men. Greenpeace believes that perfume use may be important causes. Greenpeace claims to have shown that many of the chemicals in perfumes pollute the environment and can impair fertility. And they have published a report on perfume in a subtitle Greenpeace writes: “L’eau de toxin. (The Toxic of water). ” It is a legitimate characteristic that many people with fragrance intolerance can confirm. The study focuses, however, only about nearly imperceptible long-term effects of some ingredients in the perfume and provides no explanation for the reported immediate effects in the over-sensitive. They is probably more the content of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents) (Platt 2009). The report contains an extensive bibliography (referring here to this).
The warning is especially true content of phthalates and synthetic fragrances (musk), but it must immediately be noted that the allegations in that report is rejected both by an expert committee in the European Union and the Food Safety Authority and Public Health in Norway, according to VG online. Phthalates are also present as plasticizers in a variety of plastic products. They have given cause for concern in the notification of the Environment for phthalates.
Phthalates in perfumes Diethyl (DEP) is used in a lot of cosmetics that contain alcohol, is added as a rule to make the alcohol undrinkable. The drug will rarely, if ever, be indicated on the ingredient list. DEP can be absorbed through the skin. In the body breaks the drug down to monoetylftalat (MEP). New American trials have shown high concentrations of MEP in the urine of American men. At the University of Harvard researchers have found correlation between the MEP in urine and damage to DNA in sperm from American men. MEP amounts found in several urine samples the researchers examined, proved to be enough to impair fertility. Also glykoletere (as mentioned earlier) are suspected to cause reproductive disorders (miscarriages, testicular damage) and birth defects in addition to listening to the hazardous substances.
Musk in Perfume Musk is a group of fragrance materials that originally came from the scent glands of musk deer (a threatened species in Asia). The original natural substance from the male’s scent glands have been used in perfumes for a long time, but is very expensive. It is replaced by aromatic substances from plants in some perfumes, but now used mostly synthetic musk that is relatively cheap to produce. They are used in perfumes and in many common skin care, personal care and household products.
It deals with different chemical variants. Typical is the musk xylene (5-tert butyl-2 ,4,6-trinitro-m-xylene) and musk ketone (1 – (4-tert-butyl-2 ,6-dimethyl-3 ,5-dinitrophenyl) ethanone). Such substances are found in human adipose tissue and in breast milk as clear evidence of exposure and deposition in the body. (Rimkus, Rimkus, Wolf 1994) Musk badly decomposed in nature so that they can be found in water where they are toxic to many organisms and is often found in fish and shellfish .. They are pollutants pollutants causing concern in the notification of the Environment Norway
With big knowledge on perfume and fragranced products.
- Bickers DR, Calow P, Greim HA, Hanifin JM, Rogers AE, Saurat JH, Glenn Sipes I, Smith RL, Tagami H. (2003: The safety assessment of fragrance materials. Regula Toxicol Pharmacol. 37 :218-73.
- Caress SM, Steinemann AC (2005a): A national population study of the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivity. Arch Environ Hhealth 2004 59: 300 – 5
- Caress SM, Steinemann AC (2005b: National prevalence of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: an examination of potential overlap. J Occup Environ With 47:18-22.
- Dalton P. (2003): Upper airway irritation, odor perception and health risk due two airborne chemicals. Review. Toxicol Lett. 11140-141:239-48.
- Destaillats H, Lunden MM, Singer BC, Coleman BK, Hodgson AT, Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW. (2006): Indoor secondary pollutants from household product Emissions in the presence of ozone: A bench-scale chamber study. Environ Sci technol. 40: 4421 – 8
- Doty RL, Cometto-Muniz JE, Jalowayski AA, Dalton P, Kendal-Reed M, Hodgson M (2004): Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans. Crit Rev Toxicol34: 85-142. Elberling J (2005): Ocular and Respiratory Symptoms Elicited by Perfume and Fragrance products PHD Thesis http://www.mcsvidencenter.dk/Admin/Public/DWSDownload.aspx?File=Files% 2fFiler% 2fPhDpdf.pdf
- Elberling J, Linn Berg A, Dirksen A, Johansen JD, Frolunda L, Madsen F, Nielsen NH, Mosbech H (2005a). Mucosal Symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation two atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy 35:75 -81.
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- Elberling J, Dirksen A, Johansen JD, Mosbech H (2006): The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema Patients with respiratory Symptoms elicited by perfume. Contact Dermatitis 54: 158 – 64
- Elberling J, Skov PS, Mosbech H, Holst H, Dirksen A, Johansen JD (2007): Increased release of histamine in Patients with respiratory Symptoms related to perfume. Clin Exp Allergy37: 1676 – 80 –
- Ford RA, Domeyer B, Easterday O, Maier K, Middleton J. (2000): Criteria for the development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance materials. Regula Toxicol Pharmacol 31:166-81.
- Greenpeace (2005): Perfume. An investigation of chemicals in 36 eaux de toilette and eaux de parfum. Report. Web Version / http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/perfume-an-investigation-of.pdf
- Mill Qvist E, Bengtsson U, Lowhagen O. (1999): Provocations with perfume in the eyes induces airway Symptoms in Patients with sensory hyperreactivity. Allergy. May54 1999 (5) :495-9.
- Opiekun RE, Smeet M, Sulewski M, Rogers R, Prasad N, Vedula U, Dalton P (2003): Assessment of ocular and nasal irritation in asthmatics resulting from fragrance exposure. Clin Exp Allergy. 33:1256 -65.
- Pall ML (2009): Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Toxicological Questions and Mechanisms in Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, Syversen T (Editors): The General a nd Applied Toxicology, 3rd Edition “(John Wiley & Sons,) ISBN: 978-0-470 -72,327 to 2.
- Rimkus, G., Rimkus, B. and Wolf M. (1994): Nitro musks inhuman adipose tissue and breast milk. Chemosphere 28: 421 – 433 Web Version: http://www.envirofacs.org/Pre-prints/Vol% 2039% 20No% 201/Papers/Lipnick% 20 -% 207/248.pdf
- Rudel, RA., Camann, DE, Spengler, JD, Korn, LR and Brody, JG (2003): phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and Other Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in indoor air and dust. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 186-194
- Singer BC, Coleman BK, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, Lunden MM, Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW (2006): Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone. Atmos Environ 40:6696-710.
- Steinemann AC (2008): Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients, Environ Impact Asses Rev, doi: 10.1016/j.eiar.2008.05.002. Web Version Web Version
- Sten-Eaters Hasseus E (2005): Airway sensitivity two chemicals and Scents. Thesis. Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Wainman T, Zhang J, Weschler CJ, Lioy PJ. (2000): Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure, Environ Health Perspect.108: 1139 – 45
Prof. Kjell Aas (c) (Last updated 13. februar, 2012) Original article on www.inneklima.com
Many thanks to prof. Kjell Aas for good and easy understandable article for all.