– If sperm gets damaged DNA in the final stages of maturation , may affect sperm quality. They are less able to fertilize an egg and give rise to a living child . Fertilization with sperm with damaged DNA can lead to early abortion because the fertilized egg does not develop normally and therefore banished says researcher Ann -Karin Olsen at the Division of Environmental Medicine , Institute of Public Health.
Increased likelihood of disease in offspring
– Can be damaged spermatozoa cause disease in the next generation?
– We believe that such damage may lead to increased risk of disease , but there is a difference in the effect of the damage to germ cells , and the damage to ” semi-mature ” and nearly mature sperm get. Damage to the stem cells are the most serious of these are mutations which will also be found in all cells of the offspring , says Olsen.
– When it comes to damage to the ” semi-mature ” and nearly mature cells , we know that such sperm can fertilize an egg even though they have much damage. But fertility is reduced , and the further development of the fertilized egg ( embryo ) is disrupted . To what extent such damage on disease development in the offspring , we have less knowledge , continue Olsen.
Olsen adds that research results can not be directly transferred to humans because the experiments conducted in mice, and it is used high levels of benzo ( a) pyrene , much higher levels than we humans are exposed to daily. The knowledge about the mechanisms that are most important. However, research results are consistent with other observations . For those couples who use IVF to have children see , for example, that men who smoke are less likely to become a father than non- smokers.
Studies show a correlation between paternal smoking and the risk of certain cancers in children .
Do not wait too long with kids – Do men who smoke damaged sperm forever?
– We must distinguish between damage to the stem cells and damage to sperm cells during development. If the stem cells have been DNA mutations , any sperm that develop from these cells carry the mutations . Injuries sustained in the final weeks before conception are not mutations , they will primarily provide poor semen quality and thereby reduce the likelihood of having children.
– Can we do anything to prevent injuries , besides being a non-smoker ? – I would recommend that you generally avoid harmful chemicals wherever possible . It is shown that other drugs may damage the sperm in the same manner as benzo (a ) pyrene . For men who are planning to father I would say that it is wise to consider what you expose yourself to before conception. It takes about three months from a stem cell begins to divide until it has given rise to mature sperm. In addition , I think it is wise that men do not wait too long to have children. The genetic changes accumulate during a long life , says Olsen.
Norwegian and Danish men have poorer sperm quality than men from Finland , Sweden and the Baltics. The researchers speculate that this is because women started smoking earlier in Norway and Denmark than in the other countries. There is now evidence that women’s smoking during pregnancy are important for the development of the testes in male fetuses and their future semen quality .
The research project at the Institute of Public Health continues with several investigations. The researchers will examine what happens when low doses of ia benzo ( a) pyrene used for extended periods , which are more relevant to the way we humans are exposed to these substances. Other hazardous substances are interesting to examine.
– We want to identify the bad guys – the substances that are dangerous for the male gametes , says Olsen.”
While none of those 4,000-plus chemicals is good for your baby (you would never add a dollop of lead and cyanide to his strained peaches), two compounds are especially harmful: nicotine and carbon monoxide. These two toxins account for almost every smoking-related complication in pregnancy.
The most serious complications — including stillbirth, premature delivery, and low birth weight — can be chalked up to the fact that nicotine and carbon monoxide work together to reduce your baby’s supply of oxygen. Nicotine chokes off oxygen by narrowing blood vessels throughout your body, including the ones in the umbilical cord. It’s a little like forcing your baby to breathe through a narrow straw. To make matters worse, the red blood cells that carry oxygen start to pick up molecules of carbon monoxide instead. Suddenly, that narrow straw doesn’t even hold as much oxygen as it should.
A shortage of oxygen can have devastating effects on your baby’s growth and development. On average, smoking during pregnancy doubles the chances that a baby will be born too early or weigh less than 5 1/2 pounds at birth. Smoking also more than doubles the risk of stillbirth.
Every cigarette you smoke increases the risks to your pregnancy.
Weight and size, Body and lungs, Heart and Brain function is Object for being affected by smoke.
Undersize babies tend to have underdeveloped bodies. Their lungs may not be ready to work on their own, which means they may spend their first days or weeks attached to a respirator. After they’re breathing on their own (or even if they did from the start), these babies may have continuing breathing problems — because of delayed lung development or other adverse effects of nicotine. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are especially vulnerable to asthma, and have double or even triple the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Babies whose mother smoked or being around smoke in the first trimester of pregnancy are more likely to have a heart defect at birth. Smoking during pregnancy can have lifelong effects on your baby’s brain. Children of pregnant smokers are especially likely to have learning disorders, behavioral problems, and relatively low IQs. “
Source and read more: