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#Racism #Discrimination

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Race and Racism?

I agree with Mellody Hobson we should not be color blind but color brave, see the video:

Only the human is one species. Is there really scientifically several races when it comes to humans? A species and a race is a genetic thing. Humans living today have no several races according to genetics as I have learned. There are different colors of skin, eyes, hair and so on but no different races I have learned, we all look the same inside. Maybe someone could start with changing this word flaw? There are humans, period. The word discrimination is more appropriate, it does not make the different peoples living around the world stand out. We are actually all humans.

What does the word racism come from?


“There are several theories about the origin of the word “race”. One is that it is related to the Latin “ratio” which means sense, secondly, that it comes from the Arabic “ra ‘s” meaning “head”, a word that in both Arabic and Ottoman Turkish is used both figuratively as metaphorical, the last in the sense of  “origins”, “the principal ” or “typical” possibly “the norm” . This way the use of “head” is also our expression “substantially” and “mainly” . The first instances in a European language is in Spanish “raza” or “Razza” and is recorded from the 1200s on, ie during the Andalusian Caliphate. It then means roughly “people group”. It is said that the word in the first centuries  primarily used for people who are descended from a common origin.
Use of the word in a meaning related to the emerging science occurs only in the late 1700s. Michael Biddiss points out that the word ” race” was used in a variety of meanings, from “the race of birds” “The British Race” . ” The British Race” , was used in all seriousness with important political and cultural overtones.

Alfred Russel Wallace : social- racial doctrine
Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) , a British autodidact who, out of personal interest for many years published articles about racial doctrine, held on March 1, 1864 a lecture in “The Anthropological Society” in London. This association was formed last year by disgruntled members of the older “The Ethnological Society” which to some extent had taken up Britain’s atrocities against other peoples, for example, faced Australia’s indigenous people. Tenths happened this criticism within the context of race theory, a kind of philanthropic racism. The new association was emphasis on combining ethnological knowledge with a vision of the British civilization superiority and a more bellicose nationalism.

The lecture was inspired by Darwin. The topic was whether today people descended from the same species (species), or stemmed from different albeit similar species. Wallace ‘s main point is that according Biddiss

<< what make humans unique in the organic world is their progression to a state where Natural Selection operates not upon their physical but rather upon their mental and moral condition . >>

After explaining Darwin’s theory of natural selection describes how Wallace ability to cooperate, acquisition of knowledge, etc. creates “races” that prevails at the expense of other “races”, which must succumb.

<< It is the same great law of “the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life”, wooden leads to the inevitable extinction of all those low and mentally undeveloped populations with wooden Europeans come into contact. >>

The people represented once a homogeneous race, as stated in Wallace

<< It may have been, indeed I believe, must have been, once a homogeneous race. >>

but as there has been a differentiation of various breeds.

<< If in proportion as man’s social, moral and intellectual faculties Became Developed, his physical structure would cease to be affected by the operation of “natural selection”, we have a Most Important cue to the origin of races. >>

Wallace concludes therefore that people merely constituted a unified race while natural selection was not determined by mental and social development, but only by physical development. Later, people separated by ” racial division “, but not to race stand as fundamentally based on physical properties.

Wallace is thus an example of what we would call Social Darwinist thinking used the term race for groups developed in a historical and social process. Another example is the book by John Munro, ‘ The Story of the British Race” in 1899. Book was very popular and had a wide readership .

<< we are on safe ground when we look at his ( “you ” s , RN ) physical and moral characters >>

Note that the English ” morality ” is something beyond our Norwegian ” morality” in the current wording . It also includes traditions, mores, and especially when those representing wisdom and morality.

So that “race” as a phenomenon definitional seen reflected in cultural and civilizational traits. This indicates that his concept of “race” implies that one can speak of – and determine – the “race” based on the particular hallmarks of “morality” of a particular kind. An example could be speaking about “senior races” , not primarily because they believe that there are genetic community between “senior races”, but because the culture – as it appears to the user of such a phrase is particularly valuable feature .” UIO.no

What is a race?

We use the word race about racisme in the old fashion way used down the generations. Words also have historical tradidtions. But what is a race scientifically?

“If we look at the word race in their true biological and genetic sense race is not a small change in appearance, but a major genetic change.

Some biologists use to this day the concept but contemporary research has shown that on a genetic level, there is no clear divisions in different races, why the concept from a taxonomic point of view has no relevance for humans.

The mundane and non-controversial use of the term race, limited to animal breeding. In zoology spoken frequently about subspecies, varieties or types to define variations within a species. Having a race means a population pedigree and whose anatomical features are defined in the specific breed standards.” Wikipedia.

So to have a new race there must be a major genetic change.

“Race, subset of a species. Those individuals belonging to the subgroup, the biological characteristics that distinguish them from other subgroups. Basis for the biological variation between breeds are differences between subgroups in the frequency of different genes. Breeds occur because of a certain degree of reproductive isolation through the generations, most often caused by geographical conditions.” snl.no

At forsking.no I read:

“All dogs, from the largest Great Dane to the smallest chihuahua, from dachshund husky, from poodle to wolfhound, all are one and the same species. And, no matter how different they may seem, until now there has been virtually shut impossible to distinguish them – dachshund, husky and Wolfhound – at the genetic level.

However, what applies to dogs, it applies to a large extent also for humans. That is why the survey of dog genome is so relevant. It can lead us to greater understanding of ourselves, of the similarities and differences that exist between us.

Could it be that it is with us humans as with the dog, that the breed differences are young and shallow. The dog is no more than 14000 years and evolved from the wolfs when humans made them guards and then pets. Is it with humans as with dogs – leave the dogs live free , any differences washed out within a few generations, and you will no longer be able to distinguish Poodle from bulldog – but that they nevertheless are real enough? In the sense: There are differences in temperament, physical ability, in appearance. Differences relevant enough that we humans see them, and act according to them.

One of the major scientific debates in the last hundred years has centered on modern human origins. It has ruled two positions, based on two different models: Out of Africa model and multiple-origin model.

According to the former, our ancestors migrated out of Africa for a relatively short time ago, and from them sprung out all other types of people on the planet’s surface. According to the latter, originated the modern man over the globe simultaneously. Certainly, people wandered out of Africa on the mentioned date, but they had walked out earlier too – much earlier – and what we see today is a wonderful mix of it all.

In other words. Modern man is old.” Forsking.no

Are there different human races?

Race are defined as populations of people, meaning groups within the species Homo Sapiens, which is genetically different from each other.

Modern science have found that there are som small genetic differences between people origining from different areas. Still this are small variations, not major genetic differences. On the outside we look different but inside we all are the same. The differences is created by the environment we lived in, food, ways of living and whom we mate with.

The small genetic differences can make a difference in ability to run (muscles, lenght) illnesses and so on.

But are we different races?

Maybe that is our real problem that we segregate people in to races and do not look at humans as one species / race. Should we not rather cut the race and racism and call it discrimination since that is what it is.

Annelie

Sources:

http://www.jus.uio.no/ikrs/tjenester/kunnskap/kriminalpolitikk/urett/2014/rasisme-semantiske-aspekter.pdf

http://www.wikipedia.com

www.wikipedia.se

www.wikipedia.no

http://snl.no/mennesket%2Fforskjeller_mellom_menneskegrupper

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKtALHe3Y9Q&amp;

Author: Annelie

I like canoeing, photographing, friends, movies, food, humor, and going on trips. I dislike rudeness, dishonesty, violence, nastyness, and people not caring for others. I do not drink much, I do not smoke and I do not do drugs. I love friends who are kind to me and stick with me. If you want to give me a gift, the best gift is to stop smoking and stop using fragranced products. Then you give me health and that dear friend, is the best gift a person can get. It is a gift of love. I got asthma and I am hearing disabled.

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